有絲分裂，又稱為間接分裂，由W. Fleming (1882)年首次發現于動物及E. Strasburger（1880）年發現于植物。特點是有紡錘體染色體出現，子染色體被平均分配到子細胞，這種分裂方式普遍見于高等動植物(動物和高等植物)。是真核細胞分裂產生體細胞的過程。
后期 每條染色體的兩條姊妹染色單體分開并移向兩極的時期。分開的染色體稱為子染色體。子染色體到達兩極時后期結束。染色單體的分開常從著絲點處開始，然后兩個染色單體的臂逐漸分開。當它們完全分開后就向相對的兩極移動。這種移動的速度依細胞種類而異，大體上在0.2～5微米／分間。平均速度為 1微米／分。同一細胞內的各條染色體都差不多以同樣速度同步地移向兩極。子染色體向兩極的移動是靠紡錘體的活動實現的。末期 從子染色體到達兩極開始至形成兩個子細胞為止稱為末期。此期的主要過程是子核的形成和細胞體的分裂。子核的形成大體上是經歷一個與前期相反的過程。到達兩極的子染色體首先解螺旋而輪廓消失，全部子染色體構成一個大染色質塊，在其周圍集合核膜成分，融合而形成子核的核膜，隨著子細胞核的重新組成，核內出現核仁。核仁的形成與特定染色體上的核仁組織區的活動有關。
英文版介紹(Mitosis)Mitosis is the process in which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus, into two identical sets in two daughter nuclei. It is generally followed immediately by cytokinesis, which divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two daughter cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle - the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell.
Mitosis occurs exclusively in eukaryotic cells, but occurs in different ways in different species. For example, animals undergo an "open" mitosis, where the nuclear envelope breaks down before the chromosomes separate, while fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) undergo a "closed" mitosis, where chromosomes divide within an intact cell nucleus. Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a process called binary fission.
The process of mitosis is complex and highly regulated. The sequence of events is divided into phases, corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next. These stages are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. During the process of mitosis the pairs of chromosomes condense and attach to fibers that pull the sister chromatids to opposite sides of the cell. The cell then divides in cytokinesis, to produce two identical daughter cells.
Because cytokinesis usually occurs in conjunction with mitosis, "mitosis" is often used interchangeably with "mitotic phase". However, there are many cells where mitosis and cytokinesis occur separately, forming single cells with multiple nuclei. This occurs most notably among the fungi and slime moulds, but is found in various different groups. Even in animals, cytokinesis and mitosis may occur independently, for instance during certain stages of fruit fly embryonic development.Errors in mitosis can either kill a cell through apoptosis or cause mutations that may lead to cancer.
Phases of cell cycle and mitosis
The mitotic phase is a relatively short period of the cell cycle. It alternates with the much longer interphase, where the cell prepares itself for cell division. Interphase is therefore not part of mitosis. Interphase is divided into three phases, G1 (first gap), S (synthesis), and G2 (second gap). During all three phases, the cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. However, chromosomes are replicated only during the S phase. Thus, a cell grows (G1), continues to grow as it duplicates its chromosomes (S), grows more and prepares for mitosis (G2), and divides (M).
In plant cells only, prophase is preceded by a pre-prophase stage. In highly vacuolated plant cells, the nucleus has to migrate into the center of the cell before mitosis can begin. This is achieved through the formation of a phragmosome, a transverse sheet of cytoplasm that bisects the cell along the future plane of cell division. In addition to phragmosome formation, preprophase is characterized by the formation of a ring of microtubules and actin filaments (called preprophase band) underneath the plasma membrane around the equatorial plane of the future mitotic spindle. This band marks the position where the cell will eventually divide. The cells of higher plants (such as the flowering plants) lack centrioles: with microtubules forming a spindle on the surface of the nucleus and then being organized into a spindle by the chromosomes themselves, after the nuclear membrane breaks down. The preprophase band disappears during nuclear envelope disassembly and spindle formation in prometaphase.
Normally, the genetic material in the nucleus is in a loosely bundled coil called chromatin. At the onset of prophase, chromatin condenses together into a highly ordered structure called a chromosome. Since the genetic material has already been duplicated earlier in S phase, the replicated chromosomes have two sister chromatids, bound together at the centromere by the cohesion complex. Chromosomes are visible at high magnification through a light microscope.
Close to the nucleus are structures called centrosomes, which are made of a pair of centriole. The centrosome is the coordinating center for the cell's microtubules. A cell inherits a single centrosome at cell division, which replicates before a new mitosis begins, giving a pair of centrosomes. The two centrosomes nucleate microtubules (which may be thought of as cellular ropes or poles) to form the spindle by polymerizing soluble tubulin. Molecular motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite side of the cell. Although centrosomes help organize microtubule assembly, they are not essential for the formation of the spindle, since they are absent from plants, and centrosomes are not always used in meiosis.Metaphase
As microtubules find and attach to kinetochores in prometaphase, the centromeres of the chromosomes convene along the metaphase plate or equatorial plane, an imaginary line that is equidistant from the two centrosome poles. This even alignment is due to the counterbalance of the pulling powers generated by the opposing kinetochores, analogous to a tug-of-war between people of equal strength. In certain types of cells, chromosomes do not line up at the metaphase plate and instead move back and forth between the poles randomly, only roughly lining up along the midline. Metaphase comes from the Greek μετα meaning "after."
Because proper chromosome separation requires that every kinetochore be attached to a bundle of microtubules (spindle fibres), it is thought that unattached kinetochores generate a signal to prevent premature progression to anaphase without all chromosomes being aligned. The signal creates the mitotic spindle checkpoint.Anaphase
When every kinetochore is attached to a cluster of microtubules and the chromosomes have lined up along the metaphase plate, the cell proceeds to anaphase (from the Greek ανα meaning “up,” “against,” “back,” or “re-”).
Two events then occur; First, the proteins that bind sister chromatids together are cleaved, allowing them to separate. These sister chromatids, which have now become distinct sister chromosomes, are pulled apart by shortening kinetochore microtubules and move toward the respective centrosomes to which they are attached. Next, the nonkinetochore microtubules elongate, pushing the centrosomes (and the set of chromosomes to which they are attached) apart to opposite ends of the cell. The force that causes the centrosomes to move towards the ends of the cell is still unknown, although there is a theory that suggests that the rapid assembly and breakdown of microtubules may cause this movement.
These two stages are sometimes called early and late anaphase. Early anaphase is usually defined as the separation of the sister chromatids, while late anaphase is the elongation of the microtubules and the microtubules being pulled farther apart. At the end of anaphase, the cell has succeeded in separating identical copies of the genetic material into two distinct populations.Telophase
Telophase (from the Greek τελο? meaning "end") is a reversal of prophase and prometaphase events. It "cleans up" the after effects of mitosis. At telophase, the nonkinetochore microtubules continue to lengthen, elongating the cell even more. Corresponding sister chromosomes attach at opposite ends of the cell. A new nuclear envelope, using fragments of the parent cell's nuclear membrane, forms around each set of separated sister chromosomes. Both sets of chromosomes, now surrounded by new nuclei, unfold back into chromatin. Mitosis is complete, but cell division is not yet complete.